Estudios Latinoamericanos vol. 17 (1996)

CARÁTULAS

Minimonografías

Dioses del templo de Chavín. Reflexiones sobre la iconografia religiosa
Krzysztof Makowski

 Abstract/short description:

The three most important monuments found at the archaeological site of Chavin de Huantar are El Lanzón, El Obelisco Tello and La Estela Raimondi. The article mostly discusses the Obelisco Tello, the monument, whose surface is the richest in iconography. Makowski suggests that the character of the deities depicted here and the presence of quadripartitions can be related with typical Andean cosmogonist traditions.

Short description written by Michal Gilewski

 

Artículos y estudios

La ciudad y el origen de la civilización en los Andes
Krzysztof Makowski

Abstract/short description:

This article discusses the presence of urbanism in the Andean region. The author revisits numerous models of development of complex societies that have been proposed and are still in use. Much of them relates to the concepts of city and urbanism and such manifestations of complex society are often regarded as a universal and important element of societal evolution. Makowski's article stresses that Mediterranean urbanism includes a number of very characteristic ideas that do not find any equivalent in the Andean region. He suggests that Andean settlements may not be comparable to Old World cities.

Short description written by Michal Gilewski

 

Rituales altiplánicos y cuzqueños en Atacama, acuerdos i tensiones: el caso de Turi
Carlos Aldunate del S.

Abstract/short description:

The archaeological sites of Pukara de Turi and Likan lie at the Atacama Desert in the Autofagasta province, Chile. In both of those sites limited traces of "Altiplano" and Cuzquean influences can be found. At first, only Altiplano influences were present. Only during 16th century Inca influences have appeared, which is evidenced by the presence of Inca kallankas structures.

Short description written by Michal Gilewski

 

La persistencia de la visión andina de la muerte en el virreinato del Perú
Sandra Negro

Abstract/short description:

The article describes the persistence of Andean system of beliefs related with death. It discusses the portrayal of death in colonial sources, namely the concepts disseminated by Christian missionaries. The "Mallquis" are an of Andean death related tradition. Mallquis are cults of the ancestors' skeletons. Such practices were regarded by the Catholic Church as a form of idolatry and the Church fiercely opposed them.

Short description written by Michal Gilewski

 

El problema del chamanismo en las religiones prehispánicas de Mesoamérica: el caso maya
Henryk Kocyba

Abstract/short description:

The article investigates the idea, suggested by number of authors in the 1990s, that shamanism was an important part of life in the pre-Columbian Maya societies. Kucyba analyzes the evidence of shamanism in past and modern Maya societies and then compares it with some existing models of shamanism. He dismisses the evidence for shamanism's prevalence as inadequate and argues that the term 'shamanism' describes a different kind of socio-political organization than what the Maya had.

 

La insurrección armada en Chiapas en 1994: un conflicto social de nuevo tipo
Magdalena Śniadecka-Kotarska

Abstract/short description:

Magdalena Śniadecka-Kotarska's article describes the then-freshly developed Zapatista insurgency in Chiapas, Mexico. She summarizes the history of Chiapas and the conditions that led to the rise of the Zapatista movement. She includes recent political and religious background of the conflict. The Zapatista movement is portrayed as a new kind of militancy, less interested in defending interests of one particular group, but able to unite various groups and defend their different interests.

 

Triunfo y fracaso de ta alternativa revolucionaria en América Central: causas y consecuencias
Artur Gruszczak

Abstract/short description:

The article relates the rise and fall of the revolutionary groups in Central America. Gruszczak states that behind the growth of revolutionary movements in the region, such as those in Guatemala, Salvador, Nicaragua and other Central American countries, were great abuses of civil and human rights. The author notes that the groups, which have been using revolutionary ways, or in other words armed struggle, to achieve their political goals, in 1990's changed their methods of action. Following democratization processes the left-wing militant groups have transformed themselves into political parties, working within the framework of democratic elections.


 
Antecedentes del MERCOSUR. La posición de Chile
Iris Vittini

Abstract/short description:

Since the beginning of twentieth century the three southernmost Latin American states of Argentina, Brasil and Chile (ABC) saw a number of initiatives that proposed varying degrees of economic and political integration of these countries. The basis for such integration was designated by a number of both bilateral and multinational treaties that were signed in the 20th Century. Of the biggest strength is the integration between Brazil and Argentine which led to the emergence of the MERCOSUR custom union. The 1996 article is dedicated to the study of the Chilean attitude towards MERCOSUR.