Estudios Latinoamericanos vol. 22 (2002)

CARÁTULAS

CONTENIDO

Espacio - identidad - América Latina.
Andrzej Dembicz

Short description

The essay describes the problem of space and identity in Latin American countries. In this context, it is hard to designate the definition of space. The definition of space in Latin America has aspects and dimensions. It escapes mono-dimensional definitions. In general it can be argued that both physically existing spaces and the concepts of space are involved in the creation of Latin American identity.

Short description written by Michał Gilewski

 

Archaeology and Indian identity - recent developments in the Americas.
Stanisław Iwaniszewski

Short description:
The article aims to describe the outcomes of interactions between pre-Columbian archaeology and the indigenous population. First it tries to explain why certain methodological approaches are present in Latin American archaeologies. It examines earlier suggestions that Latin American archaeologies were oriented toward nationalism and relate to modern national identities. Because of this, Latin American archaeologies may not focus on the subject of their studies, pre-Columbian past, as a past of modern indigenous groups. US archaeologists, tend to bring this perspective in their work both in US and in Latin American countries. Iwaniszewski discusses in several examples the outcomes of such an approach. He concludes with the important remark that use of similar approach could bring certain gains to Polish archaeology.

Short description written by Michał Gilewski

 

Lengua y educación frente a la pervivencia de las culturas nativas de America Latina.
Iwona Stoiśka-Kairska

Short Description:

Stoińska-Kairska’s article focuses on the problem of language in relation to persistence of native cultures in Latin Americas. She sets up a typology based on the use of language. It includes societies that use in their original language in daily life and pass it on to new generations, societies that use native language but where younger generations are abandoning it, and the societies which do not use their native language. The article analyses the role of language in the process of disintegration of indigenous cultures. As a conclusion, she presents several notions of how to counter this negative phenomenon.
The article contains an annex - a list of indigenous languages used in Latin America.

 

Los líderes indígenas en los países andinos y su rol en la consolidación del movimiento nativo.
Aleksander Posern-Zieliński

Short description:

The article describes the recent developments in institutions of leadership among traditional Andean, indigenous communities in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. In these countries not only peasant indigenous communities are present but also native communities that live in the Amazon forests. In modern times, those communities go through a process of politicization that mirrors other indigenous movements in North and Central America. The article describes both traditional and new forms of leadership that exist among the indigenous communities.

Short description written by Michał Gilewski

 

El movimento indígena ecuatoriano.
Jorge R. Barriga Bedoya

Short description:

The article describes the Ecuadorian indigenous movement. The movement developed in line with the recent proposal to make Ecuador a multi-cultural, multi ethnic state. The article provides a historical overview of the creation of various indigenous organizations. It ends with an evaluation of the objectives of the movement.

Short description written by Michał Gilewski

 

La artesanía andina y la identidad.
Magdalena Śniadecka-Kotarska

Short Description:
This short articles describes some of the results of the field research that Śniadecka-Kotarska conducted in 1994-1997 near Otavalo, Ecuador. The research is concerned with the Andean artisans. It provides a short introduction to development of the artisan art in the region. It describes the various transformations that occurred in this profession which relate to recent societal changes such as migratory work mobility.

Short description written by Michał Gilewski

 

Situación de las migraciones en el Ecuador.
Leonardo Barriga López

Short description:
This short article introduces the problems of in- and out-migration in Ecuador.

 

La nación peruana en la tradición oral quechua.
Marcin Mróz

Short description:
Mróz’s article describes ideas of the Peruan identity present in Quechua oral traditions. He tries to explain why original oral traditions state that quechua identity is something very different to the Peruan and something that cannot be integrated into the Peruvian. He relates to the duality concept of “runa” and “wirakucha” that in those traditions designate people from Their and from the Other world.

Short description written by Michał Gilewski

 

La figura del "nuevo indio" y del cholo en el pensamiento indigenista peruano.
Małgorzata Nalewajko

Short description:

The article describes the usage of the term “Cholo” in Peru. In Peru, the term has a very broad meaning and it is widely in use to describe people with an indigenous background. The article includes the investigations of both past and present meaning of this term. The article explains what this term exactly means and who uses it. The article also describes how this term and so called choledad relates to general, modern Peruvian identity.

Short description written by Michał Gilewski

 

El pueblo mapache en Argentina. Reclamacionesy propuestas.
Agnieszka Mazuś

Short description:

The article describes the Mapuches as a minority group in Argentina. The article relates to the field research Mazuś conducted in 1998 and 1999. Her research draws a portrait of Argentinian Mapuches as politically well-organized groups. Despite differences such as status and occupation they share both an engagement in the present struggle for rights and a vision of the future of their nation.

Short description written by Michał Gilewski

 

Cambios y permanencias en la identidad de los Wayuu (Venezuela 1830-1850).
Carmen Laura Paz

Short fragment (description):

Since the early times Wayuu Indians incorporated into their way of life new cultural elements that allowed them to recreate the influences of other social groups. Meanwhile they preserved values and customs that reinforced their identity such as language, laws, Cosmo vision, customs, and territory.
This study allows us to identify various factors that contributed to the survival and vitality of this social group such as social organization, economic diversity, legal legitimization and connection to land.

Short fragment adapted and translated by Michal Gilewski

 

¿Desintegración o reconstrucción de la identidad? Los aspectos socio-culturales de la actividad de la Iglesia pentecostal en América Central.
Beata Bereza

Short description:

The article deals with the presence of the Pentecostal church in Central American countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama). The Pentecostal church has grown in great numbers in the later part of the 20th century and now constitutes a majority of the protestants and large minorities in those countries. The article describes how the rise of this new religious movement had ambiguous influence on Central Americans’ identity. While it brings new ideas in place of old ones, such replacements help to revive some ideas of Central American identities, which ended up ‘damaged’ through 20th century civil wars and poverty in the region.

Short description written by Michał Gilewski

 

Política de asimilación de los indios en México contemporáneo.
Teresa Walendziak

Short description:

This short article describes the problem of politics of assimilation in Mexico. In the past, a number of institutions suggested that certain cultural traits of the indigenous groups need to be changed and such groups should be integrated politically, socially and economically into the Mexican nation. Such attitudes were dominant in Mexican state policies toward indigenous groups until as late as the 80s.

 

Investigaciones en Nakum, sitio de cultura Maya, Petén, Guatemala.
Bernard Hermes. Zoila Calderón, Justyna Olko, Jarosław Źrałka

 Short description:

Nakum is an archaeological site in northern Guatemala. The geographic setting of the site and the history of research are being described here. Hermes and Calderón provide preliminary ideas about the chronology of the site. Also results of surveys led by Justyna Olko in the peripheries (areas outside the central, monumental architecture zone) of Nakum are included here. Jarosław Źrałka describes the observations that relate to the depopulation of the site.

Short description by Michał Gilewski

 

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